Out of roughly a billion votes cast, he found 31 credible cases of voter ID fraud. And that is, he thinks, an overestimate. At the same time, thousands of people really are being turned away from polling places because they don’t have the right ID.
A full 11 percent of voting-age US citizens — about 21 million people — don’t have a government-issued photo ID. That means, in states that have strict photo ID laws, they can’t vote.
Racial minorities are disproportionately likely to lack photo ID and make up a big part of that 21 million. Fully 25 percent of African Americans of voting age (compared to only 8 percent of their white counterparts) don’t have a photo ID. [link]